Leadership Sucession Order Description • Good Topic, but may need minor grammatical correction • Good introduction, which Highlights and provides essential background to the study, but needs proof reading • The aim of the research good but no objectives were stated. Only research questions • Extensive literature review, but less application to the proposed research. Identified good gaps to fill in this research. • The methodology was not very strong, there was no justification of the proposed methodology, no research epistemology, research paradigms and alternative methods or plan B. • For research look into more companies than the suggested ones. • Research time scale is good and may be achived. • Well referenced piece of work Table of Contents Project Focus 3 Justification of Research 3 Aims and the Research Questions 4 Preliminary Literature Review 4 Research Gap 9 Theoretical Framework 10 Research Methods 11 Data collection 11 Sampling of Participants 12 Data Analysis 12 Research Plan 13 Appendix 14 Bibliography List 16 Leadership Sccussion in an Indian Family Business Context Project Focus Family businesses are becoming more common as they are being considered ideal in creating employment for the family members in a highly competitive workforce environment (Rothausen, 2009), where employability is becoming a common concern even for the university graduates (Dacre Pool and Sewell, 2007). Especially in reference to India, with a population of over 1.25 billion people (Mundkur, 2011), family businesses are becoming more commonplace in securing the wealth of the family over the generations. While these ventures strive to create wealth for the family members, a key area for concern is their leadership succession. This is because research points out that only 33% of family-owned businesses successfully transit from the first generation (founders) to the second generation (successors) (Ibrahim et al., 2001). Therefore, the proposed study is an analysis of leadership succession in an Indian family business context to deduce the challenges the businesses experience and profile the entrepreneurial benefits of a successful transition as well. (All the businesses are based in India.) As “a person who does not worry about the future will shortly have worries about the present” (Ancient Chinese Proverb) Justification of Research Most of the previous studies into the topic of family businesses are too general. They touch on topics such as governance and management, objectives, interactions and relations with human resources, and only a few of them have focused on leadership succession in family-owned businesses. Even for the studies covering leadership succession, they are too general as their focus is worldwide. Therefore, the studies are lacking a specific context that can help to understand cultural, regional, and cross-border differences in leadership succession of family businesses. Considering that many large-scale family businesses are mushrooming in India, such as the Ambani family operating the Reliance industries, the country is a good context of understanding the leadership succession from a specific context, which is the focus of the proposed study. Aims and the Research Questions The aim of the proposed project is to analyze leadership succession in an Indian family business context in comparison with that of other family-owned businesses worldwide. In this regard, the proposed research questions below will guide the project. ? Does the leadership succession of Indian family businesses conform to experts’ views in the literature? ? Does gender of the family members determine their eligibility in leadership succession of the family business? ? What are the training programs available for potential successors in Indian family-owned businesses? ? Does Indian parenting determine the interest of the children in the family business? Preliminary Literature Review There exists a large body of literature revolving the operations of family businesses around the world and their succession planning. As such, this field of study is not that terra incognita anymore. In this regard, profiling of the works of previous researchers reveals four categories of knowledge in literature about the operations of family business around the world: governance and management, objectives, interactions and relations with human resources, and their succession planning. A preliminary review of literature indicated that family businesses are inclined towards some specific objectives in the course of their operations. To begin with, most family businesses operate with long-term objectives of the business running within the hands of the family members, as opposed to short-term objectives of most non-family businesses that are more profit oriented (Harris et al., 1994). According to the authors, the family members are seen as just custodians of family wealth. This is because most family businesses are less likely to diversify their product offering and enter into new entrepreneurial ventures, which are likely to subject the business to risks (Kellermanns et al., 2008). There is the fear that a single mistake can lead to the collapse of the business, and hence the way forward to avoid such risks is to maintain the status quo of how the operations of the family business have been running for years. According to Miller and Le Breton-Miller (2003), most family businesses prefer to have their profitability and turnover growth smaller instead of venturing into new ventures that carry high risks. There are also postulations that the success criteria of most family business are not based on profitability of running the venture (Berrone et al., 2012). However, other factors are put into consideration, such as providing long-term employment to the family members, ability to successfully pass on the business to their children, social accomplishments of the business like being recognized as charity donors, and preserving the family business name over the generations. According to Gomez-Mejia et al. (2007), what matters most in a majority of the contemporary family businesses is the ‘socio-emotional wealth’ (SEW) the family members derive from their ventures. In this light, SEW is defined as the non-financial aspects of the businesses that create identity, allow complete control of the business in the hands of the family members, and preservation of family dynasty in the running of the business (Gómez-Mejía et al., 2007, p106). One strong point to note from Gómez-Mejía et al. (2007) is that a venture becomes a family-type of business simply not based on the ownership structure, such as sole proprietorship, but instead when children of the owners show interest in taking succession of the business over time. This means that leadership succession is a key characteristic of family businesses. So far, the major downside in family businesses is that they are risk-averse (Kleiman et al., 1996; Gonzalez et al., 2013), which can lead to their stagnation and low levels of innovation (Hiebl, 2012). However, Hiebl (2013) postulates that compared to non-family businesses, the family businesses only prefer to take risks that will bring long-term, rather than short-term, benefits. This tends to associate the non-family businesses with risky short-term investments, which can paralyse a whole organization in case things are to go wrong. This can be interpreted to mean that the governance and management of a majority of family business is rather long-term than short-term oriented. Another study suggested that the motivation of most owners of a family business is on the family status among other SEWs, but not in the business itself (Wang et al., 2004). As such, family businesses lack external perspectives such as hiring of professional managers. This contributes to lack of professional experience among the owners outside the business. Therefore, generally family businesses are characterized by lack of ability to professionalize and in seeking external advice (Wilson et al., 2013). Moreover, the lack of external shareholders in family businesses means less pressure that is important in challenging how the operations of a business are run (Jeuschede, 1998). A different research pointed out that compared to other family businesses worldwide, UK has more owner-managed family businesses (Scholes et al., 2010). The result of this is that such businesses end up being poorly managed and less open to new innovation (Schulze et al., 2003b), which then culminates to low profitability and slower growth (Bloom et al., 2012). Especially in reference to in-family succession, recruiting from members of the family narrows down the pool of drawing talented management. Therefore, according to Bacon et al. (2013), the use of best practice in HR is limited in family-owned business. Although there is lack of professionalization and HR training in most family businesses, these ventures foster better relationships between the junior employees and the upper management (Sundaramurthy and Kreiner, 2008). In addition, family-owned businesses experience low rates of employee turnover, high employees’ satisfaction, and employee loyalty is high (Danes et al., 2009). These positive aspects are attributed to the fact that, in most family-owned business, the upper management and the junior management are members from the same family. Hence, they have high congruence in the goals and objectives of the family business (Zhu et al., 2007). In addition, because most family-owned ventures are more focused on the long-term sustainability of the business, treating the employees well is not an option to avoid high rate of turnover that can result in loss of employees who have accumulated experienced over the years (Kotey and Folker, 2007). Where some employees are sourced externally, research points out that the owners recruit carefully to ensure that the hired employees fit into the team, ethos, and values desirable to keep the family business running. Research postulates that most family-owned businesses are affected by how they are transferred from one generation to another (Poutziouris, 2001; Sharma et al., 2001; Morris et al., 1997). This is because the transfer process has its own implications on the business, as it determines whether the business will be successful or will fall (Wang et al., 2000). A research by Ibrahim et al. (2001) points out that only about 33% of family-owned businesses successfully transit from the first generation of founders to the second generation. Out of 33% of family businesses that transit successfully from the first generation to the second generation, research points out that only about 33% of them transit successfully to the third generation (Ibrahim et al., 2001). This can be interpreted to mean that only 10.89% of family-owned businesses successfully transit over two generations. According to Stavrou and Swiercz (1998), the process of leadership succession takes place in three major stages. The first stage is referred to as the pre-entry, whereby the potential successors are subjected to training, orientation, and others forms of preparations meant to “groom” them to take over the business. The second stage is the actual entry, whereby the trained and prepared successors become integrated into the family business so that they can gain and accumulate relevant experience of how they run the business operations. The final stage is the promotion, whereby the more experienced and qualified successors are appointed to senior management positions to spearhead the operations of the family businesses. According to Nordqvist et al. (2013), there is a major distinction between management transition, whereby the next generation takes control of running the operations of the family business, and ownership transition, whereby the next generation are allowed to buy or receive equity in the family business (Lansberg, 1997). In most cases, the two occur together. However, irrespective of the type of transition, Salvato et al. (2010) and DeTienne and Chirico (2013) opine that the physical transfer of the family business to the next generation is a much less important aspect in succession planning compared to the transfer of the core values of the family business to the successors. This is tandem with an earlier postulation that the one of the major objective of running a family business to safeguard the socio-economic wealth (SEW) of the family members. There is also another standpoint in literature indicating that leadership succession in family businesses can be seen a process of entrepreneurial exit and entry (DeTienne, 2010) Based on this postulation, the first generation is viewed to have different entrepreneurship skills and talents compared to that of the upcoming generations (Zellweger et al., 2012). Although it is not possible to exactly state which generation’s entrepreneurship skills and talents are effective for the family business (Steier and Miller, 2010), at least succession can be seen as the transition from the old entrepreneurship era (exit) into a new one (entry). Research Gap From the preliminary review of literature, it is explicit that a majority of previous studies into the topic of family businesses are too general. They touch on topics such as governance and management, objectives, interactions and relations with human resources, and only a few of them have focused on leadership succession in family-owned businesses. Even for the studies covering leadership succession, they are too general as their focus is worldwide. Therefore, the studies are lacking a specific context that can help to understand cultural, regional, and cross-border differences in the leadership succession of family businesses. Considering that many large-scale family businesses are mushrooming in India, such as the Ambani family operating the Reliance industries, Tata, Birla, and Jindal among others, the lack of adequate literature on such Indian ventures is a huge research gap that is worth investigating. In this light, the country is a good context of understanding the leadership succession between men and women, training programs to develop the leader, and the influence of parenting in successful transition of Indian family businesses. Theoretical Framework Research Methods The proposed study will adopt a descriptive research design to aid in the understanding of the leadership succession in an Indian family context “as it is” when the study is being conducted (Bordens and Abbott, 2002). According to Goddard and Melville (2004), a descriptive research design answers the questions of who, what, where, when, and how about the research topic, but without ascertaining the answers of why. Using a descriptive research design, both primary and secondary data will be gathered to help in answering the proposed research questions (Mitchell and Jolley, 2012). Secondary data will be collected from empirical research project such as journals (Heaton, 2008), pertaining to leadership succession in family businesses that are not from an Indian context. This information will be helpful in comparing leadership succession in an Indian family context with that of other countries worldwide. On the other hand, primary data will be collected directly from respondents (Bowen, 2009), who in this case operate family businesses in India, advisors and researchers, so that they can inform the researcher about how they go about leadership succession. The following are other considerations under research design. Data collection Primary data for the proposed project will be gathered using semi-structured interviews. This is because information about family businesses is very sensitive and not many respondents (family members) would be willing to provide the researcher with accurate information. As such, using semi-structured interviews will help the researchers to assess the validity of statements provided by the research respondents by observing their non-verbal indicators (Horton et al., 2004), such as facial expressions and body language. In addition, using semi-structured interview will ensure the researcher deals with one family member at a time, such that no respondent receives assistance from the other about the interview questions (Opdenakker, 2006). Hence, information collected will be representative of the diverse opinions about leadership succession in Indian family business. Sampling of Participants Using semi-structured interviews requires a few research participants (Seidman, 2013). This is because they are usually in-depth and hence a theoretical saturation of leadership succession in an Indian culture can be reached quickly (Geertz, 1979). Based on this understanding, the proposed study will rely on information pertaining to 10 family businesses operating in India. This information will be collected directly from the members of the family. Because the nature of data required for this project is very sensitive, due to competition issues that may make the researcher appear as a spy of family operations, snowball sampling will be used (Penrod et al., 2003). This means that the researchers will only identify one family business, which will be cooperative to the researcher’s request for information, from which the members of the family will recommend the researcher to their friends who run family businesses as well. From each family business, the researcher will collect at least the opinions of two family members. In total, the research will target 20 participants, but the number will be reduced by the researcher when a theoretical saturation is reached. A theoretical saturation can be explained as the point at which analysis of more interviews does not bring new information to the researcher (Guest et al, 2006). The interviews will be recorded with the permission of the respondents. Data Analysis Qualitative data analysis will be employed as opposed to quantitative analysis (Bernard, 2011). The interviews will be transcribed from the audiotape and will then be analyzed thematically (Thomas and Harden, 2008. The use of thematic analysis will help the researcher to summarize the major themes and their corresponding sub-themes on major issues relating to leadership succession in the context of Indian family business. These themes will then be discussed in relation to the research questions and in comparison with leadership succession of other family businesses worldwide from secondary data (literature review). Research Plan The proposed project will follow the plan shown in the Gantt chart below. D Proposal Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun -16 Jul-16 Aug-16 Sept-16 Formulation of working title Preliminary literature review Complete proposal Supervisor’s feedback D Final Literature Review Methodology Secondary Data collection Primary Data collection Analysis Discussions and conclusions Introduction and summary Wrapping up Submission Appendix Intended sampaling mix: The research will try to cover a wide range of business that have both failed and succeeded along with firms that are in the process of leadership succession. Some firms that provide a complete perspective are: • Reliance (Mukesh Ambani’s division) • Tata • Birla • Ruiya • Sunpharma • Adani • Apollo Most of the business can be reached for interviews, therefore here will be Primary research conducted on them and if they cant be reached for some reason or the information provided is not substantial enough then secondary research will be conducted to give the research an holistic approach. Due to the Snowballing sample there would be enough participants that can be reached in the short time available. Based on the time available mostly only large and medium sized firms will be researched with only a few small and very small firms included. Interview: Apart from Family business their advisors and researchers in this field will be interviewed for a deeper understanding and provide a different insight into the topic. Some of them are: • MR. Ram Charan • Mr. Tatwamasi Dixt • Mr. Peter Leach Reports from: Already existing reports from these various firms can be obtained for the research. Those sources are: • McKensey • Boston Consulting Group • Ernst & Young • Parampara Family Business Institute Conclusion If the statistics are to be believed, only 12-15% of family-run businesses survive through to the third generation and only 4-5% go on to the fourth generation. (Ibrahim, A. B., Soufani, K., and Lam, J. 2001) Additionally, one third of the business families disintegrate because of generational conflict at the leadership issues. (Berrone, P., Cruz, C., and Gomez-Mejia, L. R. 2012). Traditionally, Indian family-run businesses focused on dividing the silver among the next generation rather than grooming the right person to take up the job. (Vedpuriswar 2001) However, with changing times, Indian family-run businesses need to ensure that the chosen successor has necessary education and skills to lead the business. Therefore leadership sucession planning is important for Family Business in India. The lack of a lot of studies in existence provides a good opertunity for this research. Bibliography List Bacon N., Hoque, K. and Siebert, S. (2013). Family Business People Capital, Institute for Family Business. Bernard, H.R., (2011). Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Rowman Altamira. Berrone, P., Cruz, C., and Gomez-Mejia, L. R. (2012). Socioemotional wealth in family firms theoretical dimensions, assessment approaches, and agenda for future research. Family Business Review, 25(3), pp258-279. Bloom, N., Genakos, C., Sadun, R., and Van Reenen, J. (2012). Management Practices Across Firms and Countries, Academy of Management Perspectives 26(1), pp12- 33. Bordens, K.S. and Abbott, B.B., (2002). Research design and methods: A process approach . McGraw-Hill. Bowen, G.A., (2009). Document analysis as a qualitative research method. Qualitative research journal, 9(2), pp.27-40. Dacre Pool, L. and Sewell, P., (2007). The key to employability: developing a practical model of graduate employability. Education Training, 49(4), pp.277-289. Danes, S.M., Stafford, K., Haynes, G. and Amarapurkar, S.S., (2009). Family capital of family firms: Bridging human, social, and financial capital. Family Business Review. DeTienne, D.R., (2010). Entrepreneurial exit as a critical component of the entrepreneurial process: Theoretical development. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(2), pp.203-215. DeTienne, D.R., and Chirico, F. (2013) Exit Strategies in Family Firms: How Socioemotional Wealth Drives the Threshold of Performance. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 37(6), pp1297-1318. Geertz, C. (1973). Thick description: toward an interpretive theory of culture. In C. Geertz (Ed.), The interpretation of cultures, (pp.3-30). New York: Basic Books. Goddard, W. & Melville, S., 2004. Research Methodology: An Introduction. Lansdowne : Juta. Gómez-Mejía, L. R., Haynes, K. T., Núñez-Nickel, M., Jacobson, K. J., and Moyano-Fuentes, J. (2007). Socioemotional wealth and business risks in familycontrolled firms: Evidence from Spanish olive oil mills. Administrative Science Quarterly, 52(1), pp106-37. Gonzalez M., Guzman, A., Pombo, C. and Trujillo, M.A. (2013) Family firms and debt: Risk aversion versus risk of losing control. Journal of Business Research, 66(11), pp2308–20. Guest, G., Bunce, A. and Johnson, L., (2006). How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability. Field methods, 18(1), pp.59-82. Harris, D., Martinez, J.I., and Ward, J.L., (1994). Is strategy different for the family-owned business? Family Business Review, 7(2), pp159–74. Heaton, J., (2008). Secondary analysis of qualitative data: An overview. Historical Social Research/Historische Sozialforschung, pp.33-45. Hiebl, M. R. (2012). Peculiarities of Financial Management in Family Firms. International Business & Economics Research Journal, 11(3). Hiebl, M. R. (2013). Risk aversion in family firms: what do we really know? The Journal of Risk Finance, 14(1), pp49-70. Horton, J., Macve, R. and Struyven, G., (2004). Qualitative research: experiences in using semi-structured interviews. The real life guide to accounting research, pp.339-357. Ibrahim, A. B., Soufani, K., and Lam, J. (2001). A study of succession in a family firm. Family Business Review, 14(3), pp245-58. Jeuschede, G. (1998) Suchen, Auswählen, Gewinnen und Halten des Fremdgeschäftsführers, in: Hennerkes and Kirchdörfer (eds). Unternehmenshandbuch Familiengesellschaften. Carl Heymanns Verlag, Köln et al., Germany, pp769-78. Kellermanns, F. W., Eddleston, K. A., Barnett, T., and Pearson, A. (2008). An exploratory study of family member characteristics and involvement: Effects on entrepreneurial behavior in the family firm. Family Business Review, 21(1), pp1- 14. Kleiman R, Lange J, Leleux B, Petty W and Shulman J (1996) An Index Of Family Controlled Publicly Traded Firms: Comparison Of Performance Relative To Traditional Indices. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 1996, Babson College. Kotey, B. and Folker, C., (2007). Employee training in SMEs: Effect of size and firm type—Family and nonfamily. Journal of Small Business Management, 45(2), pp.214-238. Lansberg, I. S. (1997). The difference between parenting and mentoring. The Family Business Succession Handbook, 50. Miller, D., and Le Breton-Miller, I. (2003). Challenge versus advantage in family business. Strategic Organization, 1(1), pp127-34. Mitchell, M. and Jolley, J., (2012). Research design explained. Cengage Learning. Morris, M. H., Williams, R. O., Allen, J. A., and Avila, R. A. (1997). Correlates of success in family business transitions. Journal of business venturing, 12(5), 385- 401. Mundkur, B., (2011). Incredible India: the inconvenient truth. Asian affairs, 42(1), pp.83-97. Nordqvist, M., Wennberg, K., and Hellerstedt, K. (2013). An entrepreneurial process perspective on succession in family firms. Small Business Economics,40(4), 1087-1122. Opdenakker, R., (2006), September. Advantages and disadvantages of four interview techniques in qualitative research. In Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research (Vol. 7, No. 4). Penrod, J., Preston, D.B., Cain, R.E. and Starks, M.T., (2003). A discussion of chain referral as a method of sampling hard-to-reach populations. Journal of transcultural nursing, 14(2), pp.100-107. Poutziouris, P.Z. (2001) The Views of Family Companies on Venture Capital: Empirical Evidence from the UK Small to Medium-Size Enterprising Economy. Family Business Review 14(3), pp277-91. Rothausen, T.J., (2009). Management Work—Family Research and Work—Family Fit Implications for Building Family Capital in Family Business. Family Business Review, 22(3), pp.220-234. Salvato, C., Chirico, F. and Sharma, P. (2010) A farewell to the business: Championing exit and continuity in entrepreneurial family firms. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development 22(3-4), pp321-48 Scholes, L., Wilson, N., Wright, M., Noke, H. and Altanar, A. (2010) UK Family Businesses: Industrial and Geographical Context, Governance and Performance, London: Institute of Family Business. Schulze, W. S., Lubatkin, M. H., and Dino, R. N. (2003b). Exploring the agency consequences of ownership dispersion among the directors of private family firms. Academy of Management Journal, 46(2), pp179-94. Seidman, I. (2013). Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and the social sciences. Teachers college press. Sharma, P., Chrisman, J. J., Pablo, A. L., and Chua, J. H. (2001). Determinants of initial satisfaction with the succession process in family firms: A conceptual model. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25(3), 17-36. Stavrou, E. T., and Swiercz, P. M. (1998). 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Paper assignment

Paper assignment

As you know, COMM 3530, Communication and Sexualities is a writing intensive course. This means that over the course of the (short!) semester, you will produce an 18-to-20-page paper in APA style (double-spaced, 12 point font, standard margins).

The completed paper is due June 29 by 3:00 pm EST.

For your paper, you will be analyzing how sexualities are represented in media texts, such as television shows and movies. You will analyze a minimum of 10 hours of content (e.g., a season of a television show or several movies). You will use theories and concepts learned in class to guide your analysis.

You will be completing your paper in stages. You will submit each section of your paper to me. I will grade it and provide written feedback. At the end of the semester, you will put the paper together and submit it as a whole. Then, I will grade the entire paper.

Project proposal and outline: 3 pages, 75 points – due May 19 by 3:00 pm EST

This assignment will outline your project and explain to me what you plan on writing about. In this assignment, you will explain:

• What media texts you plan to study (names, episode numbers, etc.)
• Why you chose the texts that you did
• How you will have access to the texts you want to study (do you own the DVDs? Are the texts on Hulu, Amazon, or Netflix? How will you get them? You cannot analyze a text if you do not have access to it)
• What you hope to analyze in the texts (relationships, interactions, etc.) and why you decided to analyze it
• Why your analysis is important and valuable
• A brief summary of the text — characters, plot, setting, when it was released, where it was released (e.g., television network), etc.

Literature Review: 5 pages, 100 points – due June 2 by 3:00 pm EST

This assignment will explain the theories and concepts you plan to use to guide your analysis. You will select a minimum of two theories or concepts from class materials (e.g., essentialism, constructivism, Communication Theory of Identity, Cass Identity Model, stigma, stereotypes, Schema Theory, Clark’s Stages of Representation, etc.) and use outside academic sources (journal articles and books) to learn more about them. You will need to cite a minimum of eight outside sources (four for each theory/concept). You will use APA style. In this assignment you will include:

• A description and definition of the first theory/concept you will use in your analysis.
• An explanation about why the first theory/concept you chose is appropriate for the project.
• Material from four academic sources, cited in APA style, (journal articles or books) that help you better understand your first theory/concept beyond what was presented in lecture.
• A description and definition of the second theory/concept you will use in your analysis.
• An explanation about why the second theory/concept you chose is appropriate for the project.
• Material from four academic sources, cited in APA style, (journal articles or books) that help you better understand your second theory/concept beyond what was presented in lecture.
Findings, part 1: 4-5 pages, 150 points, due June 9 by 3 pm EST

This assignment will be the first half of your analysis. You should have findings from about half of your texts (about 5 hours of texts). For this assignment, you will apply the two theories/concepts you chose in the Literature Review to analyze your texts. You should cite specific examples from the texts in your analysis. Here are some issues to be thinking about:

• How is the text consistent with the theories/concepts you chose? Give specific examples from your texts. Why do you think the text is consistent with the theories/concepts?
• How is the text inconsistent with the theories/concepts you chose? Give specific examples from your texts. Why do you think the text is inconsistent with the theories/concepts?
• To what extent does your analysis offer a deeper understanding of the theories/concepts that you chose?
• To what extent does your analysis offer a deeper understanding of the text that you chose?
Completed findings: 4-5 pages, 150 points, due June 16 by 3 pm EST

This assignment will be the second half of your analysis. You should have findings from about half of your texts (about 5 hours of texts). For this assignment, you will apply the two theories/concepts you chose in the Literature Review to analyze your texts. You should cite specific examples from the texts in your analysis. Here are some issues to be thinking about:

• How is the text consistent with the theories/concepts you chose? Give specific examples from your texts. Why do you think the text is consistent with the theories/concepts?
• How is the text inconsistent with the theories/concepts you chose? Give specific examples from your texts. Why do you think the text is inconsistent with the theories/concepts?
• To what extent does your analysis offer a deeper understanding of the theories/concepts that you chose?
• To what extent does your analysis offer a deeper understanding of the text that you chose?

Conclusion: 2 pages, due with final version of paper – June 29 by 3 pm EST

This section will wrap up your paper. You will need to include:
• A brief summary of your findings (just a few sentences)
• A discussion of what you have learned, overall, about your texts.
• A discussion of what you have learned, overall, about your theories/concepts
• A discussion of ideas for future research for your texts and your theories/concepts
• Final assessment of the appropriateness of your theories/concepts for your texts (are you happy with your selection? Do you wish you picked something else? If so, what do you wish you had picked?)
Introduction: 1 page, due with final version of paper – June 29 by 3 pm EST

This section will start off your paper. You should use material from your Project Proposal and Outline to help you write it. Include:
• The purpose of the project
• Mention the names of the texts you analyzed
• Mention the names of the theories/concepts that you used
Helpful links:

Finding scholarly sources

Communication and Mass Media Complete Database from the NU Library (scroll down): http://library.northeastern.edu/research/resources/a-to-z-index#C

Google scholar from the NU library (scroll down): http://library.northeastern.edu/research/resources/a-to-z-index#C

Citing in APA style

Journal articles and book, in-text citation: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/2/

Journal article, bibliographic citation: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/
http://www.easybib.com/reference/guide/apa/journal

Book, bibliographic citation:
http://www.easybib.com/reference/guide/apa/book

How to cite TV shows and movies:
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/11/

MGT 607- Strategic Management (Module 4 Case) Module 4 – Case HYPOTHESIS 4 (IF THERE IS ANOTHER KEY EFFECT ON DV/S; IF NOT RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN IVS OR MODERATION EFFECTS) Assignment Overview This case assignment focuses on hypothesis 4. The convention is that you start with the key effect on your DV (the right side of the model), and move your way to the left side in future modules. This hypothesis can be based on two sources of data: (1) overarching theories which have been applied in other or similar contexts, and now you adapt them to your specific context; or (2) existing studies which showed such or similar effects, but did not anchor them in theory. If the latter is the case, you should theorize, using your own logic, why you expect such an effect. Regardless, you should first find the relevant literature (SLP), and synthesize it (case). Assignment Overview Please read and reflect on the papers you identified in the SLP assignment, and synthesize them to produce the text leading to hypothesis 4. Follow a structure you have seen in one or more of the published research papers you reviewed. Conclude this section with the hypothesis statement. organize your paper in a scholarly way. Add section titles when necessary. Explain your logic and when appropriate, use external sources and use proper citations. The paper is usually between 2 and 10 pages long. Assignment Expectations Able to understand the key themes in your reading list. Able to effectively and efficiently synthesize the reading materials. Write the text leading to the hypothesis with clarity, depth and critical thinking. Completeness and coherence: Chain of thought is easy to follow. Collected relevant evidences and consulted additional papers/resources to support the propositions. Paper is clearly written with appropriate format. Reference list is complete. Citation is properly done.

MGT 607- Strategic Management (Module 4 Case)
Module 4 – Case

HYPOTHESIS 4 (IF THERE IS ANOTHER KEY EFFECT ON DV/S; IF NOT RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN IVS OR MODERATION EFFECTS)
Assignment Overview
This case assignment focuses on hypothesis 4. The convention is that you start with the key effect on your DV (the right side of the model), and move your way to the left side in future modules. This hypothesis can be based on two sources of data: (1) overarching theories which have been applied in other or similar contexts, and now you adapt them to your specific context; or (2) existing studies which showed such or similar effects, but did not anchor them in theory. If the latter is the case, you should theorize, using your own logic, why you expect such an effect.

Regardless, you should first find the relevant literature (SLP), and synthesize it (case).

Assignment Overview
Please read and reflect on the papers you identified in the SLP assignment, and synthesize them to produce the text leading to hypothesis 4. Follow a structure you have seen in one or more of the published research papers you reviewed. Conclude this section with the hypothesis statement.

organize your paper in a scholarly way. Add section titles when necessary. Explain your logic and when appropriate, use external sources and use proper citations.
The paper is usually between 2 and 10 pages long.
Assignment Expectations
Able to understand the key themes in your reading list.
Able to effectively and efficiently synthesize the reading materials.
Write the text leading to the hypothesis with clarity, depth and critical thinking.
Completeness and coherence: Chain of thought is easy to follow.
Collected relevant evidences and consulted additional papers/resources to support the propositions.
Paper is clearly written with appropriate format. Reference list is complete. Citation is properly done.

Animal Farm

Why does Napoleon think that Boxer was a menace for him in ‘Animal farm’ by George Orwell? Write an essay answering the question. Support your ideas with relevant arguments and examples. List 2-3 sources in the references

: My role in nursing and looking to become a nurse practicioner

capstone simulation- round 1 for Research and Development

capstone simulation- round 1 for Research and Development

Order Description

doing for my MBA study in business and now I am preparing my capstone simulation project. Simulation is an online LogIn project and has about 5 practice rounds. But I am not able to provide the login access now because I think system does not allow. But I am uploading in my account here all available files that your expert can read and review and apply. I need your expert will kindly apply his/her skills and accurately estimate what numbers, costs, values and data would be best to use and fill into the capstone spreadsheet which I am attaching in my account with a file name of: DECISION-Round1- Research & Development.
This is practice round 1 for research and development and simulation has other 4 rounds including: Production, Marketing, Human resources and Financing.

Thus, in this order your expert needs to caluclate and apply data for round 1 that will be applied later to other 4 practice rounds and data must be very reliable and in good relation with all rounds and final reports and scorecard and balances and my virtual company should gain maximum profit in competing with other listed virtual companies.
My company’s v

(High Technology)

apply Broad Differentiator Strategy for this simulation and appreciate expert will apply this strategy.

My virtual company Baldwin has 5 products and I would like Broad Differentiator strategy will apply for all of these 5 products.

active communication with your expert and send me any questions and ideas that can help me to complete this round 1 of my simulation project.

to wait for capstone advice to confirm the result from round 1.
If things will go well then I will be happy to place next orders and work with your expert to complete other 4 rounds.
For this moment, I think I have expressed my needs. But later I may remember to add my additional thoughts, information and send my questions to your experts.

Ethics, Patient Outcomes, and Nurse Satisfaction Order Description Describe a complex ethical issue confronting professional nurses in your healthcare setting. Choose a different issue than the one you are addressing in the course project. Evaluate how this issue impacts patient outcomes and safety, as well as nurse satisfaction and retention. How has this issue been addressed within your organization? Do you agree or disagree with how the issue has been addressed? Explain. How might you, as a nurse leader, address it? How would you approach the issue? Who should be involved in the decision making and why? What actions would you take? Why? What are the implications of compassion fatigue for this issue? How might you, as a nurse leader, identify and address these implications? Your initial post should be succinct, and demonstrate clarity of thought and precision in writing. Support your discussion with at least one reference other than the required reading. Resources: Read Absolon and Krueger's 2008 article, "Compassion Fatigue Nursing Support Group in Ambulatory Care Gynecology/Oncology Nursing," from Oncology Nursing Forum, volume 35, issue 3, page 500. Read Aycock and Boyle's 2009 article, "Interventions to Manage Compassion Fatigue in Oncology Nursing," from Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, volume 13, issue 2, pages 183–191. This article presents the findings of a study identifying the availability of interventions in three major categories: on-site professional resources, educational programs, and specialized retreats for nurses. Read Bush's 2009 article, "Compassion Fatigue: Are You at Risk?," from Oncology Nursing Forum, volume 36, issue 1, pages 24–28. This article defines compassion fatigue, identifies who may be at risk, and provides information on how to provide compassionate care for oneself. Read Repenshek's 2009 article, "Moral Distress: Inability to Act or Discomfort With Moral Subjectivity?," from Nursing Ethics, volume 16, issue 6, pages 734–742. This article provides a critical examination of how the Catholic tradition's normative ethical framework accounts for moral subjectivity in end-of-life decision making serves to aid nursing's discomfort and as a starting point to recontextualize moral distress.

IB – W2 – Replies Order Description For this assignment, reply to three students papers. Their papers are uploaded as BT, CP, and SB (three separate papers). Each reply to each student must be at least 183 words that perfectly exceed the following: Major points are supported by the following: • Reading & Study materials; • Pertinent, conceptual, or personal examples; • Thoughtful analysis (considering assumptions, analyzing implications, and comparing/contrasting concepts); • Citations in current APA format 6th edition; • Meaningful contribution is made to the discussion/paper. • Each reply expounds on the student’s paper. • You must also critique the other student's adherence to assignment instructions (see page 2) This is important. In addition, all replies must clearly link to the original author’s paper, contribute new information, and be supported by the scholarly resources. The replies must advance the conversation further by providing new ideas and insights, asking probing questions that get to the heart of critical issues, and share from one’s personal and professional experience. For the purposes of citations, each reply to each student’s paper must include: o At least 2 scholarly article (the text and the Bible do not count); and o A relevant business article (any article from a reputable business source—website, magazine, book, etc.—that discusses a relevant business/ethical. The replies must be in current APA format (6th edition) and must include a reference page under each student paper. Important: Label your paper with the student initials that you are responding to. For example, if you are responding to BT’s paper then write, “this response is for BT”. In addition, each response to each student paper must have their own references. Do not combine all the references for all students at the end of the paper. Place the appropriate references under the applicable student’s response. The replies must be written in U.S. English. In addition, the paper must meet the following standards: • The content of the paper is well developed and fully addresses all aspects of the assignment. • The paper is written well and is fluid, well organized, and engaging. • The sources are adequate and substantial for the paper and include the required amount for each reply. • For each reply, provide integration of a biblical concept that supports your response. Biblical integration is more than just quoting a verse. Be sure to explain the biblical principle seen in the verse and how that principle may be applied to the issue at hand. • The clarity and mechanics contribute to discussion with clear, concise comments formatted in an easy to read style that is free of mechanical errors such as grammar and/or spelling. Current APA format 6th edition is applied correctly. Important requirement: the paper that you upload paper must contain a statement that it meets or exceed all standards as provided in the aforementioned instructions. Additional Information: BT, CP, and SB were asked to follow the instructions below and their papers (that I uploaded) should be based upon these instructions: Read chatpers one and two of the textbook: Satterlee, B. (2014). Cross border commerce: With biblical worldview applications (2nd ed.). Roanoke, VA: Synergistics, Inc. ISBN: 9781934748121. The chapters are uploaded. As you read the chapters assigned to each module/week, you will find some concepts more interesting and applicable to your personal or work situation than others. Review the key terms listed in the assigned chapters; then, submit a preliminary thread indicating the key term that you wish to reserve for your thread for that module/week. (800 words minimum) After you have successfully reserved the key term that interests you the most, research a minimum of 5 recent scholarly articles that relate to the concept on which you wish to focus your research. Articles must be found in reputable professional and/or scholarly journals and/or informational venues that deal with the content of the course (i.e., not blogs, Wikipedia, newspapers, etc.). After reading the articles, select the 1 article that you wish to discuss. Your thread must be placed in the Discussion Board Forum textbox and adhere precisely to the following headings and format: 1. Key Term and Why You Are Interested in It (100 words minimum) After reading the textbook, specifically state why you are interested in conducting further research on this key term (e.g., academic curiosity, application to a current issue related to employment, or any other professional rationale). Include a substantive reason, not simply a phrase. 2. Explanation of the Key Term (100 words minimum) Provide a clear and concise overview of the essentials relevant to understanding this key term. 3. Major Article Summary (300 words minimum) Using your own words, provide a clear and concise summary of the article, including the major points and conclusions. 4. Discussion In your own words, discuss each of the following points: a. How the cited work relates to your above explanation AND how it relates specifically to the content of the assigned module/week. This part of your thread provides evidence that you have extended your understanding of this key term beyond the textbook readings. (150 words minimum) b. How the cited work relates to the other 4 works you researched. This part of your thread provides evidence that you have refined your research key term to a coherent and specialized aspect of the key term, rather than a random selection of works on the key term. The idea here is to prove that you have focused your research and that all works cited are related in some manner to each other rather than simply a collection of the first 5 results from your Internet search. (150 words minimum) 5. References A minimum of 5 recent scholarly articles (not textbooks, Wikipedia, or other popular reading magazines), in current APA format, must be included and must contain persistent links so others may have instant access. In the event that formatting is lost or corrupted when submitting the thread, attach the Microsoft Word document to your thread as evidence that your work was completed in the proper format. Current APA format 6th edition is required

IB – W2 – Replies
Order Description
For this assignment, reply to three students papers. Their papers are uploaded as BT, CP, and SB
(three separate papers). Each reply to each student must be at least 183 words that perfectly exceed the following:

Major points are supported by the following:
• Reading & Study materials;
• Pertinent, conceptual, or personal examples;
• Thoughtful analysis (considering assumptions, analyzing implications, and comparing/contrasting concepts);
• Citations in current APA format 6th edition;
• Meaningful contribution is made to the discussion/paper.
• Each reply expounds on the student’s paper.
• You must also critique the other student’s adherence to assignment instructions (see page 2) This is important.
In addition, all replies must clearly link to the original author’s paper, contribute new information, and be supported by the scholarly resources. The replies must advance the conversation further by providing new ideas and insights, asking probing questions that get to the heart of critical issues, and share from one’s personal and professional experience.

For the purposes of citations, each reply to each student’s paper must include:
o At least 2 scholarly article (the text and the Bible do not count); and
o A relevant business article (any article from a reputable business source—website, magazine, book, etc.—that discusses a relevant business/ethical.
The replies must be in current APA format (6th edition) and must include a reference page under each student paper.

Important: Label your paper with the student initials that you are responding to. For example, if you are responding to BT’s paper then write, “this response is for BT”. In addition, each response to each student paper must have their own references. Do not combine all the references for all students at the end of the paper. Place the appropriate references under the applicable student’s response.

The replies must be written in U.S. English.

In addition, the paper must meet the following standards:

• The content of the paper is well developed and fully addresses all aspects of the assignment.

• The paper is written well and is fluid, well organized, and engaging.

• The sources are adequate and substantial for the paper and include the required amount for each reply.

• For each reply, provide integration of a biblical concept that supports your response. Biblical integration is more than just quoting a verse. Be sure to explain the biblical principle seen in the verse and how that principle may be applied to the issue at hand.

• The clarity and mechanics contribute to discussion with clear, concise comments formatted in an easy to read style that is free of mechanical errors such as grammar and/or spelling. Current APA format 6th edition is applied correctly.

Important requirement: the paper that you upload paper must contain a statement that it meets or exceed all standards as provided in the aforementioned instructions.

Additional Information:

BT, CP, and SB were asked to follow the instructions below and their papers (that I uploaded) should be based upon these instructions:
Read chatpers one and two of the textbook:
Satterlee, B. (2014). Cross border commerce: With biblical worldview applications (2nd ed.). Roanoke, VA: Synergistics, Inc. ISBN: 9781934748121.
The chapters are uploaded.
As you read the chapters assigned to each module/week, you will find some concepts more interesting and applicable to your personal or work situation than others. Review the key terms listed in the assigned chapters; then, submit a preliminary thread indicating the key term that you wish to reserve for your thread for that module/week.
(800 words minimum)
After you have successfully reserved the key term that interests you the most, research a minimum of 5 recent scholarly articles that relate to the concept on which you wish to focus your research. Articles must be found in reputable professional and/or scholarly journals and/or informational venues that deal with the content of the course (i.e., not blogs, Wikipedia, newspapers, etc.).

After reading the articles, select the 1 article that you wish to discuss.

Your thread must be placed in the Discussion Board Forum textbox and adhere precisely to the following headings and format:

1. Key Term and Why You Are Interested in It (100 words minimum)
After reading the textbook, specifically state why you are interested in conducting further research on this key term (e.g., academic curiosity, application to a current issue related to employment, or any other professional rationale). Include a substantive reason, not simply a phrase.

2. Explanation of the Key Term (100 words minimum)
Provide a clear and concise overview of the essentials relevant to understanding this key term.

3. Major Article Summary (300 words minimum)
Using your own words, provide a clear and concise summary of the article, including the major points and conclusions.

4. Discussion
In your own words, discuss each of the following points:
a. How the cited work relates to your above explanation AND how it relates specifically to the content of the assigned module/week. This part of your thread provides evidence that you have extended your understanding of this key term beyond the textbook readings. (150 words minimum)
b. How the cited work relates to the other 4 works you researched. This part of your thread provides evidence that you have refined your research key term to a coherent and specialized aspect of the key term, rather than a random selection of works on the key term. The idea here is to prove that you have focused your research and that all works cited are related in some manner to each other rather than simply a collection of the first 5 results from your Internet search. (150 words minimum)

5. References
A minimum of 5 recent scholarly articles (not textbooks, Wikipedia, or other popular reading magazines), in current APA format, must be included and must contain persistent links so others may have instant access. In the event that formatting is lost or corrupted when submitting the thread, attach the Microsoft Word document to your thread as evidence that your work was completed in the proper format.
Current APA format 6th edition is required

Topic: series of limitations regarding governing the Internet and policing activities

Paper details:

The text will identify a series of limitations regarding governing the Internet and policing activities that may occur over the diverse networks. This activity provides you with an opportunity to independently explores some of the key topics we will be discussing this term.

Address the following themes in your response to the topic below:
geography
government vs. private regulation
need for governance and/or regulation
Discuss potential models and characteristics of governance or regulation for the following activities. Provide your own thoughts as to specific bodies that should be either engaged or excluded (e.g. the United Nations, the International Telecom Union (ITU), WCIT, the US Department of Homeland Security, etc). Provide rationale for your recommendations.

Select one of the following topics to frame your response:
Internet Growth – Technology and Protocols
Access (i.e. End-user/Digital Divide)
Applications/Application Development
E-commerce/Monetary aspects of online growth
Protection of Minors
Pornography
Criminal activities
Please be sure to provide appropriate reference information for resources that you are using to build your knowledge. Your posts are expected to be more than an opinion piece, and you will be penalized for failing to cite external sources in response.
Your submission must be a minimum of 500 words, excluding the title page and references.

NOTE: Responses should be written in a clear and concise fashion, and must follow APA Guidelines.

australia join loe inflation rate

australia join loe inflation rate
Order Description
I would like you guys to write an essay about this article include
1- start your review by referring to the title of the article, the date it was written and the name of the author in the first paragraph.
2- express the main points and argument of the article in your own word
3- explain the economic principles and applications in this section. this may be done in several paragraphs, depending on how many principle you need to discuss.
4- write your opinion of the article
5- conclude the article review. in a paragraph, summaries the main points of the article as well as your opinion about its significance, accuracy and clarity. if relevant, also comment on implications for further resea