Topic: Does liberalism offer freedom for all, or only some?
Use standard British spelling: e.g. use …ise, not …ize; programme not program; labour not labor;
per cent not percent; set your Spellcheck for English (UK) if you are not sure!
Numbers: one to twenty in words; 21 upwards in figures;
Use the full form: 1986-1987
Use the following style for particular dates: 1 January 1989
Note: ‘1986-1987’ OR ‘from 1986 to 1987’, NOT ‘from 1986-1987’
‘between 1986 and 1987’, NOT ‘between 1986-1987’.
Text in non-English languages should be italicised (e.g. caudillo, Zeitgeist, mise-en-scène), but
please note that proper nouns, even in foreign languages, are not italicised (thus, for example,
Frente Nacional de Prefeitos or Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei should not be
Do not put full stops in acronyms or abbreviated names such as UNESCO, ILO, USA, NSDAP,
PFIO, ETA etc.
Titles: In the main text as in references (see below), the titles of whole literary works, other
books, films or plays should be italicised (thus: Candide, Bourbon Peru, Frühlings Erwachen,
Four Weddings and a Funeral); titles of articles, chapters in edited collections, or other parts of
books should be placed in quotation marks.
Long citations should be indented (over, say, four lines long) without quotation marks, and with
single-spacing. Otherwise use ordinary single quotation marks (‘). For quotes within quotes, use
double quotation marks (“). Do not italicise the text of a quote.
Paragraphs: these should be set off clearly from one another, possibly by indenting the first line
of each new paragraph. Use paragraph spacing (9 or 12pt?)
A) Citations and quotations in your text
Citation: HARVARD REFERENCING
2. CITATIONS AND REFERENCES
Use references to show the sources for data and arguments
Use references to engage in ‘conversation’ with other writers
Citation: FOOTNOTE SYSTEM
ALL works cited in your text must be listed in the Bibliography at the end.
Although it is a pain, it saves an enormous amount of time if you keep full bibliographical
information – it is infuriating to be scrabbling around at the last minute searching for the exact
title for a paper, the page numbers in a journal, etc.
There are different conventions for different types of references. If the reference is to a book, you
give the surname, initial, date of publication, title in italics, place of publication, publisher (and
note the way commas, full stops and colons are used):
Fowler, R. (1986) Linguistic Criticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
If the book is an edited collection, you put (ed.) or (eds) after the name(s) of the editor(s):
Gass, S. & Selinker, L. (eds) (1983) Language Transfer in Language Learning. Rowley,
Massachusetts: Newbury House.
If the text is a translation:
Calvino, I. (1992) If On a Winter’s Night a Traveller, W. Weaver (trans.). London, Minerva.
If you refer to a chapter in an edited book, the title of the paper is in inverted commas, not
italicised. You then add information about the book – editor(s), title in italics, place of publication
and publisher; and you give the page numbers of the paper:
Gass, S. & Selinker, L. (1983) ‘Language transfer: A conference report’. In Eppert, F. (ed.)
Transfer and Translation in Language Learning and Teaching (Anthology Series, Number 12).
Singapore: Singapore University Press, pp. 86-99.
If the reference is to a paper in a journal, the title of the paper is again in inverted commas, not
italicised; the name of the journal is in italics, information about the publisher is not included, and
you give the page numbers of the paper:
Thompson, S. (1994) ‘Aspects of cohesion in monologue’. Applied Linguistics, Vol. 15, No. 2,
The list of References must be strictly alphabetical, by author’s name, and by initial if two
authors have the same name – e.g.
precedes Thompson, S.
1 Hobsbawm, E. (1995) Age of Extremes. The Short Twentieth Century, 1914-1991 London:
If there is more than one title by the same author, they must be listed in the order of date of
publication – e.g.
Halliday, M. A. K. (1985)
precedes Halliday, M. A. K. (1994)
If an author appears in the References as sole author or editor and also as first co-author/editor
with others, all the references to him/her as sole author come before the references to him/her as
co-author, irrespective of date – e.g.
Halliday, M. A. K. (1985)
and Halliday, M. A. K. (1994)
precede Halliday, M. A. K. & Hasan, R. (1976)