Introduction – main body – conclusion for every topic ( every topic about 400 to 500 words )
For more clarify: This means:
(CULTURE- Introduction – main body – conclusion)
(Leading and Influencing -Introduction – main body – conclusion)
(Performance Management -Introduction – main body – conclusion)
Link the every article with its topic and the statement that shown below each topic.

Expected to critique Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, particularly criticisms (self study!), and compare to other theorists, especially Hofstede
Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner (7 dimensions):
Dimension one – universalism-particularism:
Relative importance of applying standardised rules and policies across societal members; role of exceptions in rule enforcement
Universalism – reliance on formal rules and policies that are applied equally to everyone; rules come before relationships; examples include Austria, Germany, Switzerland, US
Particularism – rules must be tempered by the nature of the situation and the people involved; examples include China, Venezuela, Indonesia, Korea
Dimension two – individualism-collectivism:
Extent to which people derive their identity from within themselves or their group
Individualism – focus on individual achievement and independence; examples include US, Nigeria, Mexico, Argentina
Collectivism – focus on group achievement and welfare; examples include Singapore, Thailand, Japan
Dimension three – specific-diffuse:
Extent to which people’s various roles are compartmentalised or integrated
Specific – clear separation of a person’s various roles; examples include Sweden, Germany, Canada, UK, US
Diffuse – clear integration of a person’s various roles; examples include China, Venezuela, Mexico, Japan, Spain
Dimension four – neutral-affective:
Extent to which people are free to express their emotions in public
Neutral – refrain from showing emotions; hide feelings; examples include Japan, Singapore, UK
Affective – emotional expressions acceptable or encouraged; examples include Mexico, Brazil, Italy
Dimension five – achievement-ascription:
Manner in which respect and social status are accorded to people
Achievement – respect for earned accomplishments; examples include Austria, US, Switzerland
Ascription – respect for ascribed or inherited status; examples include Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Hungary
Dimension six – time perspective:
Relative focus on the past or the future in daily activities
Past/present oriented – emphasis on past events and glory; examples include France, Spain, Portugal, Arab countries
Future oriented – emphasis on planning and future possibilities; examples include China, Japan, Korea, Sweden, US
Dimension seven – relationship with environment:
Extent to which people believe they control the environment or it controls them
Inner-directed – focus on controlling the environment; examples include Australia, US, UK
Outer-directed – focus on living in harmony with nature; examples include China, India, Sweden, Egypt, Korea
Dimension seven – relationship with environment:
Extent to which people believe they control the environment or it controls them
Inner-directed – focus on controlling the environment; examples include Australia, US, UK
Outer-directed – focus on living in harmony with nature; examples include China, India, Sweden, Egypt, Korea
TOPIC 2: Leading and Influencing
ARTICLE: British Council & Booz (2013) Culture at Work Research:
IMPORTANT: in this topic Discusses the advantages of working in international groups and teams with members from diverse multicultural backgrounds? For individual, team and organization.
And link it with:
Surveyed HR managers at 367 large companies in 9 countries
Indicates there is real business value in employing staff who have ability to work effectively with individuals and organisations from cultural backgrounds different from their own
In particular, employers highlight following as important intercultural skills:-
Ability to understand different cultural contexts and viewpoints
Demonstrating respect for others
Knowledge of a foreign language
Employees with these skills are seen to benefit organisations through their ability to:-
Bring in new clients
Work within diverse teams
Support a good brand and reputation for their organisation.
Conversely, employees who lack these skills may leave their organisations susceptible to risks including:-
Loss of clients
Damage to reputation
Conflict within teams

TOPIC 3: Performance Management & performance appraisal
(5 variables for expatriates, non-expatriates, performance appraisal)
ARTICLE: Mercer (2013) Global Performance Management Survey (Executive Summary)
Link this article with performance appraisal and :
Five variables affecting expatriate performance
Variable one (of 5) – cultural adjustment:
Individual and accompanying family members (link to Culture; HRM in MNCs I)
Variable two (of 5) – host environment in which performance occurs (link to IHRM Theory and Practice):
Cultural and institutional difference
Subsidiary or foreign facility
Variable three (of 5) – headquarters support:
For individual
For accompanying family
Link to HRM in MNCs III (i.e. pre-departure training and repatriation)
Five variables affecting expatriate performance (cont’d)
Variable four (of 5) – assignment task variables and role of expatriate:
Similarity of post that incumbent held prior to current position
Role defined in one country, but assessed in another, so communication and feedback essential to clarify differing cultural norms (see slides 13, 14 & 15)
Variable five (of 5) – compensation package (last session):
Broad terms and conditions probably re-negotiated
Impact on performance of both legal contract (negotiated at employee resourcing stage) and psychological contract (unwritten expectations)
Decision on format of compensation package (going rate versus balance sheet) potentially influences employee performance
Performance management of non-expatriates (i.e. staff whose work involves international travel, but not considered international assignees because do not relocate to another country)
Perennial challenge of effectively communicating strategic links between assignee’s performance and organisational strategy is magnified
Work conducted through non-standard assignments and international travel still conducted across cultural and national boundaries, thus subject to cultural differences in norms about acceptable or preferred levels of participation
Isolating international dimensions of job performance might prove difficult
Performance feedback for assignees will only be relevant if it reflects international contexts in which they are performing
Cross-cultural awareness and competence training will still be relevant for non-expatriates
Challenges for IHRM to determine what to reward when dealing with non-expatriate assignments and ways in which compensation for each type of international assignment fits with global compensation strategy (last session)